FUOYE Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (FJPAS) http://fjpas.fuoye.edu.ng/index.php/fjpas <p><strong>FUOYE Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences </strong></p> <p>Fuoye Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (FJPAS) is published by the Faculty of Science, Federal University Oye-Ekiti (FUOYE), Nigeria. FJPAS is a double blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal and publishes original scientific and science-related research, developments and emerging issues. The journal publishes three issues in a year (i.e. April, August and December).</p> <p>All manuscripts accepted on or before 15th March will be published in the first issue of that year (Available online on April 1st of that year). All manuscripts accepted on or before 15th July will be published in the second issue of that year (Available online on August 1st of that year) while all manuscripts accepted on or before 15th November will be published in the third issue of that year (Available online on December 1st of that year). However, FJPAS accepts manuscripts throughout the year.</p> <p><strong>Scope</strong><br />FJPAS is an annual, peer-reviewed international Journal that publishes both in electronic and hardcopy format. The journal aims at providing the academic and research community with a medium for promoting, disseminating and presenting cutting edge researches in the field of Pure and Applied Sciences. The journal publishes original research papers in all aspects of Biological, Chemical, Mathematical, Physical/Geo-Physical Sciences, Environmental Sciences and Information Technology/Computer Science as well as related topics; accepts publications from within and outside Nigeria. Articles and short communications in the areas mentioned will also be considered for publication especially if the articles give a new insight into the area of specialization.</p> <p><strong>Journal policy on plagiarism</strong><br />The editors of this journal enforce a rigorous peer-review process together with strict ethical policies and standards to ensure and to add high-quality scientific works to the field of scholarly publication. <strong>Therefore, any manuscript with a similarity index higher than 20% will not be sent out for review and will be declined for publication. </strong></p> <div><strong>Open Access articles are published in the journal "FUOYE Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences" under the license CCBY 4.0:</strong></div> <div><a id="jplink" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode</a></div> <div> </div> <div>By submitting and publishing your articles in this Journal, authors retain the copyright <strong>and</strong> full publishing rights without restrictions.</div> Faculty of Science, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Nigeria en-US FUOYE Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences (FJPAS) 2616-1419 Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terminalia Catappa Leaf Extract and its Application in Phytoremediation of Some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Soil http://fjpas.fuoye.edu.ng/index.php/fjpas/article/view/296 <p>Green synthesis of nanoparticles has been embraced in the field of nanotechnology in recent times. This is because of its promising benefits over other chemical methods. In this study zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were synthesised via a green-mediated route with <em>Terminalia catappa</em> (Almond) leaf extract, a plant rich in alkaloids and flavonoids. The biosynthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FTIR).&nbsp; The XRD and electron microscopy both confirmed the hexagonal crystalline wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs with an average size of 28nm. The EDX result showed an elemental yield of 94.8 and 3.3% for Zn and O respectively. FTIR results indicate Zn-O stretching vibration at 460cm<sup>-1</sup>. Furthermore, this study evaluated the role of ZnO nanoparticles in the uptake and degradation of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil on which <em>Panicum maximum </em>Jacq. (Poaceae<em>) and Aspilia africana </em>Pers. (Asteraceae) plants grow. The uptakes of the PAHs in the two plants were quantified by Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The percentage degradation of the investigated PAHs-anthracene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[k]flouranthene, chrysene and naphthalene in the soil of <em>Panicum</em> <em>maximum</em> were 56.5, 71.3, 39.7, 54.2 and 83.5% while in the soil of <em>Aspilia Africana </em>60.9, 74.6, 45.8, 58.8 and 85.2% were obtained respectively. The results indicated that Naphthalene had the highest percentage of degradation. Therefore, as the concentration of the ZnO NPs increases, degradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon increases.</p> A.F. Oluyinka-Edunro, B.M. Ogunsanwo and O.O. Adeyemi Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-12 2024-05-12 9 1 1 15 Comparative Study of Geotechnical Assessment of Highway Subgrade Using In Situ DCPT and Laboratory Engineering Parameters http://fjpas.fuoye.edu.ng/index.php/fjpas/article/view/297 <p>A comparative study of the geotechnical assessment of subgrade soils using <em>in situ</em> Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) Test &nbsp;and laboratory tests were carried out. The study was aimed at establishing the suitability of selected tropical soils as subgrade materials using the conventional laboratory test and <em>in-situ</em> DCPT method. The study involved sampling a total of 15 soil samples taken in a hand-dug pit at a minimum depth of 0.5m along Osogbo-Ilobu road. The <em>in-situ </em>test involved the use of a DCP in estimating the <em>in-situ</em> California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of the soil at 100m intervals through the 1.5 km stretch of the road. Laboratory tests carried out includes the grain size analysis, hydrometer test, Atterberg limits and specific gravity, CBR, permeability and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS). The results revealed a well-graded soils which are mostly clayey and silty sand (SC &amp; SM) according to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) and A-2-4, A-2-6 to A-7 category of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) classification. The coarse fraction ranged between 48.3 - 90.5 % and fine fraction between 9.5 - 44.6 %. The UCS ranged from 148.8 - 214.5 kPa; unsoaked CBR from 54 – 148 %; soaked CBR from 42 – 106 %, reduction in strength due to soaking between 2.8 and 31.1 %; DCPT estimated CBR between 70 and 185. Conclusively, the soils were fairly suitable as subgrade, except for the clay contents in them, accounting for a very low rate of permeability which may be responsible for ponding and excessive soaking of the subgrade.</p> C. A. Oyelami, O. A. Ojo2, O. O. Owoyemi and A. Salako Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-12 2024-05-12 9 1 16 29 Nutrient Rich Complementary Food formulation using Locally Sourced Compositions http://fjpas.fuoye.edu.ng/index.php/fjpas/article/view/298 <p>Adequate nutrition in infancy and childhood is crucial for a child's growth. This study formulated complementary foods using locally abundant and affordable food raw materials. Fermented maize, sorghum, roasted soybeans, crayfish, and date palm fruit were processed into flours separately; and the flours were blended in varying proportion to obtain six formulated complementary diets (A-F). A commercial baby food (maize and soybean-based) served as the control. The proximate composition, functional analysis, vitamin and mineral analysis were determined on the blends. Sensory analysis of the reconstituted complementary diets was determined using standard procedure. The results showed that proximate content varied for moisture (2.7% to 12.07%), crude protein (12.71% to 19.34%), fat (1.88% to 9.00%), ash (2.30% to 4.32%), crude fiber (3.08% to 7.00%), and carbohydrate (59.63% to 72.25%). Vitamin and mineral content ranged from Vitamin C (14.13 mg/100g to 74.14 mg/100g), sodium (30.50-180.00mg/100g), potassium (195.00-570.00 mg/100g), calcium (156.50-500.00 mg/100g), iron (2.16-10.00 mg/100g), zinc (1.55 mg/100g to 6.00 mg/100g). Functional properties included water absorption capacity (111.33 g/ml to 377.00 g/ml), oil absorption capacity (100.43 g/ml to 213.03 g/ml), bulk density (1.66 g/cm³ to 2.27 g/cm³), and foaming capacity (3.19% to 6.95%). Sensory evaluation result showed that sample C (30% maize, 30% sorghum, 20% soybean, 10% crayfish and 10% date palm fruit) had the most preferred attributes in term of taste, color, aroma, consistency, texture and overall acceptability when compared with the control diet. The developed complementary food formulation could help to alleviate protein-energy malnutrition among infants in developing countries.</p> A.B. Adepeju, T.T. Adewa, K.O. Oni, A.M. Oyinloye and A.O. Olugbuyi Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-12 2024-05-12 9 1 30 55 A Numerical Comparison of the Insurer’s Ruin Probabilities under the Lundberg’s and Tijim’s Ruin Frameworks http://fjpas.fuoye.edu.ng/index.php/fjpas/article/view/299 <p>Recently, the Nigerian insurance industry has experienced underwriting problems resulting from the insolvency of a few insurance firms. It becomes necessary to appraise the ruin probability of insurer’s portfolio of schemes so as to estimate the degree to which the insurer could survive. Classical models such as Lundberg’s inequality evolved to help obtain reasonable estimations of ruin. The classical model considers the effect of underwriting modifications such as loading factors to ensure that approximations in the model are worthwhile. When an insurance surplus falls below a prescribed benchmark, the insurer is technically ruined. This paper studies and compares ruin probabilities under Lundberg’s and Tijim’s models with gamma claims. The objectives of this study are: (<strong>i</strong>) to solve the adjustment co-efficient using the moment generating ‘’function,’’ (<strong>ii</strong>) to compute the Lundberg’s ‘’co-efficient,’’ (iii) to compute Tijim’s ruin approximation and then compare. Computational evidence from the results show that the Tijims approximation is lower and hence represents an improvement over Lundberg’s co-efficient. Furthermore, the results show that as the initial capital increases, the probability of ruin decreases under the two models. Further evidence also reveals that as the safety loading and the adjustment coefficient increase, the ruin probability decreases. From the foregoing, the results obtained could be employed to advise the insurance firms through the regulatory authorities to enshrine policy framework which can forestall pervasive consequences of ruin. Consequently, actuaries can use the results obtained to advise insurance operators on the minimum capital to avoid ruin conditions.</p> G. M. Ogungbenle, S.K. Ogungbenle and A .T. Chakfa Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-12 2024-05-12 9 1 56 80 The Onset of Iodine-induced Hyperthyroidism Among Women of Child Bearing Age in Ekiti East and Ekiti West Local Government Areas of Nigeria Following the Mandatory Salt Iodization Programme http://fjpas.fuoye.edu.ng/index.php/fjpas/article/view/300 <p>One of the adverse outcomes of most iodine supplementation programs is iodine-induced hyperthyroidism. Following the baseline nationwide survey conducted in 1993 which revealed the high prevalence of iodine deficiency in Nigeria, a universal salt iodization strategy was implemented. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in some previously iodine-deficient villages in Ekiti. Altogether, 97 women from an Ogun State control community with no iodine deficiency as per previous studies and 592 women of childbearing age from 10 distinct Ekiti state villages took part in the study. The respondents had samples of their blood, urine, and salt obtained for routine analytical procedures. The prevalence of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism was 1.21% in Ekiti East and 0.59% in Ekiti West local government areas. Urinary iodide concentrations were 26.16 ± 8.39 μg/dl, 26.52±9.68 μg/dl, 24.34±9.53 μg/dl and were significantly higher in Iworo, Iludofin and Aramoko communities compared with 22.15±6.68 μg/dl in the control. Between 10 and 50% of the salt samples in the test and control areas had salt iodine concentrations over the WHO threshold of 20–40 ppm.&nbsp; Comparing the iodine-induced hyperthyroid respondents with the controls, the TSH and albumin values were significantly lower (P&lt;0.05), whereas the T3, T4, and urine iodide values were significantly higher (P&lt;0.05). The study showed that iodine-induced hyperthyroidism incidence in some Ekiti communities is high. Advocacy, the implementation of a quantitative technique of salt evaluation at the community level, and proper monitoring of salt iodization at the factory level are suggested as remedies.</p> D. D. Ajayi, A. O. Awoyinka and O. B. Ajayi Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-12 2024-05-12 9 1 81 92 Impacts of Composted Poultry Dung on Nematode Infectivity and Yield of Bell Pepper http://fjpas.fuoye.edu.ng/index.php/fjpas/article/view/301 <p>Composted animal dung as manure is gaining popularity in Nigeria as farmers seek to enhance soil fertility and crop production. Composted animal manure, such as poultry dung, can enhance crop performance and reduce the need for chemical nematode control, leading to improved crop growth. This study aimed to investigate the effect of composted poultry dung on nematode infectivity and yield of bell pepper. Twenty-one (21) days old bell peppers were exposed to different concentrations of composted poultry dung. Soil and root samples were taken using an improvised soil auger and a sterilized kitchen knife over three months. The study adopted a complete randomized block design with five treatments and five replicates, and phyto-parasites were extracted using the sieve plate procedure and were identified using pictorial keys. Severe infections were recorded in plots that received no composted poultry dung treatment. However, plots treated with composted poultry dung showed relatively fewer symptoms of phyto-parasitic nematodes, which did not significantly affect the performance of the bell pepper. The study concluded that composted poultry dung has the potential to enhance crop strength and reduce the impact of phytopathogens, resulting in improved crop growth and maximum yield. It also suggests that treating soil with poultry dung can contribute to food security.</p> E. G. Ekine and C. O. Ezenwaka Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-12 2024-05-12 9 1 93 104 Mini Review on the Association and Impact of Air Quality on COVID-19 Lethality http://fjpas.fuoye.edu.ng/index.php/fjpas/article/view/302 <p>Air quality is an important factor that any government needs to manage and control because of the deteriorating effect on both human health and the ecosystem. Since the emergence of the novel virus in December, 2019, the relationship between COVID-19 lethality and air quality has generated quantum of debates. This work is aimed at reviewing literatures presently known about the impact of air quality on COVID-19 lethality and provides evidence to support that significant link exist between air pollutants and the disease lethality. Scientific literatures regarding the relationship between air pollution and COVID-19 revealed that, strong association exists between some air pollutants and COVID-19 lethal rates in cities to date, and by obvious reasons.</p> I. Oghenovo and E.G. Olumayede Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-12 2024-05-12 9 1 105 117 Growth Evaluation of Tomato Plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in Response to Melon Seed Shell Biochar Soil Amendment http://fjpas.fuoye.edu.ng/index.php/fjpas/article/view/303 <p>Agrochemicals are applied to soil for improved crop yield to meet the nutritional needs of the ever-increasing human population. However, extensive usage of these agrochemicals can get into food causing illness when consumed. Research into safer means of achieving crop yield led to the discovery of biochars. The effect of melon seed shell biochar on tomato plant growth, under screenhouse conditions was investigated in this study. The shells obtained after the removal of melon seeds were milled and pyrolyzed at 500°C using 1 hr heating time to produce the biochar. Mid Infra-red Reflectance Spectroscopy was employed in the determination of feedstock, biochar and sterilized soil physicochemical properties. The experiment consisted of 4 biochar application treatments (0 (control), 5 (T1), 10 (T2) and 20 (T3) t/ha.) Biochar amendment significantly enhanced the cation exchange capacity, manganese, sodium, copper and zinc contents of the soil. Pyrolysis also improved organic carbon, organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, boron and manganese in the feedstock. Agronomic parameters of tomato plants on biochar-amended soils were significantly enhanced relative to the control whereas T1 enhanced weight of fruits better than T2, T3 and the control. There were significant improvements in tomato plant yield and nutritional composition of soil as revealed in this study.</p> C. O. Ojesola, A. K. Akintokun, P. O. Akintokun, M. O. Taiwo and S. O. Adebajo Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-12 2024-05-12 9 1 118 130 Synergistic Effects of Combined Treatments with Oral Zinc Sulfate and Dietary Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder on Body Weight, Blood Glucose, and Lipid Profile in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats http://fjpas.fuoye.edu.ng/index.php/fjpas/article/view/304 <p>Zinc and <em>M. oleifera</em> have shown great antidiabetic potential individually but the therapeutic potential of their combination is underreported. This study examined the synergistic impact of oral zinc and dietary <em>M. oleifera</em> leaf supplementation on body weight, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Fifty-six male adult Wistar rats were randomly grouped into seven as follows: (1) normal controls without treatment, (2) normal controls fed a 3% <em>M. oleifera</em> leaf-supplemented diet, (3) diabetic controls without treatment, (4) diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg oral metformin, (5) diabetic rats fed a 3% <em>M. oleifera</em> leaf-supplemented diet, (6) diabetic rats treated with 100 mg/kg oral zinc sulfate, and (7)&nbsp; diabetic rats fed a 3% <em>M. oleifera</em> leaf-supplemented diet and treated with 100 mg/kg oral zinc sulfate.&nbsp; The results suggest that group 3 had significant (<em>p&lt;0.</em>05) weight loss, and elevated blood glucose and lipids compared to groups 1 and 2. However, when all the treated diabetic groups were compared with group 3, group 4 had a significant (<em>p&lt;0.</em>05) rise in body weight; fasting blood glucose levels dropped considerably in groups 4 and 7; none of the groups (4-7) showed a significant (<em>p&lt;0.</em>05) change in total cholesterol; low-density lipoproteins decreased significantly (<em>p&lt;0.</em>05)&nbsp; in groups 5 and 7; group 7 showed a significant (<em>p&lt;0.</em>05) reduction in triglycerides and an increase in high-density lipoproteins. Conclusively, the combined supplementation with oral zinc and dietary <em>M. oleifera</em> generally outperformed the individual treatments with zinc or <em>M. oleifera</em>, indicating a possible synergistic effect of their combination.</p> A. I. Ganiyu, A. P. Yusuf, A. Muntari, S. Kabir, B. Abdulrahman, L. Nura, M. Aliyu, M. B. Abubakar, A. Muhammad and A. S. Idoko Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-12 2024-05-12 9 1 131 145 Estimation of Topsoil Variability from Continuous 2-D Subsurface Images of in-situ Resistivity and Selected Soil Properties http://fjpas.fuoye.edu.ng/index.php/fjpas/article/view/305 <p>The study was carried out to determine interplay between continuous 2-D subsurface variability of <em>in-situ </em>soil electrical resistivity and selected topsoil properties. <em>In-situ</em> resistivity measurements were taken using the Wenner electrode array with electrode spacing (a) of 8 cm and 128 cm to constrain measurements to the O (0 – 3 cm) and A (3 – 50 cm) horizons respectively. Soil samples were also taken from the O and A horizons and were analyzed for particle size distribution, moisture content and pH. The resistivity values ranged between 241 ohm-m and 1786 ohm-m, while the moisture content and pH ranged from 4.11% to 12.6% and 5.1 – 6.8 respectively. Texturally, the sandy loam and loamy sand textures were observed. On the 2-D subsurface soil properties variability maps, low, moderate and high values were observed. Soil properties with low to moderate values were classified as sandy clay/clayey sand with respect to resistivity; permanent wilting point with respect to moisture content and moderately acidic – slightly acidic with respect to pH. The soil properties with high values were classified as sand, plant available water and neutral in terms of resistivity, moisture content and pH. Predominantly, the sandy loam texture was characterized by low to moderate resistivities while the loamy sand texture corresponded to high resistivities. Resistivity reduced with increasing moisture content (plant available water) while pH approached neutrality. In the same vein, high resistivity corresponded to low moisture content (permanent wilting point) with pH approaching acidity. The continuous 2-D subsurface resistivity variation was attributed to soil variability.</p> <p>.</p> A.B. Eluwole and M.O. Olorunfemi Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-05-12 2024-05-12 9 1 146 161 Steganalysis of an Image-Based Semantic Segmented and Binary Pattern Complex Stego File Using RNN And DenseNet http://fjpas.fuoye.edu.ng/index.php/fjpas/article/view/308 <p>Image steganalysis is a method for detecting concealed data within an input image, regardless of the steganography technique employed. Unfortunately, many existing image steganalysis techniques need more detection accuracy and high computing costs due to preprocessing requirements. This paper proposes a hybridized CNN-RNN deep learning approach that leverages DenseNet and LSTM techniques for efficient steganalysis. Using a combined embedded and unaltered image dataset of about three hundred thousand which are partitioned into training and testing sets with the ratio of 70 to 30 percent. &nbsp;The method utilizes the dense concatenation property of DenseNet and the high sensitivity of LSTM to identify differences in image appearance and extract concealed data from the cover image. Performance analysis was conducted on both models using mean squared error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and accuracy. The results demonstrate that LSTM outperforms DenseNet regarding MSE and PSNR values, LSTM shows lower MSE and higher PSNR The ensemble of both model gives higher accuracy values indicating a more quality image after extraction from an embedded form, thus making it a superior model for image steganalysis. This approach offers an effective and efficient method for detecting concealed data in image steganography. LSTM provides a promising avenue for further improvement of image steganalysis techniques. The findings will contribute to the advancement of steganalysis research and pave the way for practical applications in the field of information security.</p> J. N. Ugwu, T. T. Odufuwa, S. E. Akinsanya and K. V. Fajembola Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 9 1 162 177